Flattening the Curve brings Office Ergonomics to the home office

Experts at MyAbilities offer tips and free access to the Rapid Office Strain Assessment, or ROSA, so workers can work at home as safely as possible

MISSISSAUGA, Ont., March 20, 2020 – The world changed last week and office work will never be the same again. That is the conclusion drawn by the experts at MyAbilities, a leader in smart health technology and workplace safety.  

“To help keep the population safe, while trying to maintain life we know in the best way possible, people are working from home in greater numbers than ever seen before,” says Dr. Michael Sonne, vice president, innovations and research at MyAbilities Technologies. “We’ll really get to see just how impactful this can be on our productivity, health and work-life balance. While many of us have had work from home opportunities in the past, this is going to pose a great challenge as no one really had time to prepare. It’s important to keep ergonomics in mind as you adjust to the new normal and your work from home environment.”  

The company is providing a list of tips to help workers adjust to home office environments.

“Given the current climate of uncertainty and change, we are committed to helping businesses and workers make the best of the situation and realize that home offices can be just as comfortable and productive as the traditional office setting,” says Reed Hanoun, CEO at MyAbilities.

To help companies better equip and support their employees for work at home, MyAbilities is also offering a free two-month trial of ROSA, the Rapid Office Strain Assessment, a self-assessment tool for office ergonomics.  ROSA provides guidance on proper setup for your computer workstation.

Working remotely has increasingly been considered by organizations as a viable option to provide flexibility to their workforce.

A few ergonomics tips

  1. Keep moving – sitting with your laptop on your knees and your neck bent down while on your couch is going to cause neck and back pain. Whenever possible, move between the couch, your desk, kitchen table, etc. Movement is key to preventing pain when you might not have dedicated office furniture.
  2. The laptop was meant for travel – and we’re all at home now. Remember that laptops were meant for portability – when you have the opportunity to plug your laptop into a monitor, keyboard, and mouse, take that chance.
  3. Be the MacGyver of your own office ergonomics – you might not have as many adjustments on your dining room chairs as you do with your office task chair, but take advantage of things like a rolled-up towel to give you more lumbar support, use a phone book or old text book to elevate your monitor while using a keyboard.
  4. The neck and shoulder hold gets tiring really fast – most of us have Bluetooth headphones or earbuds. These typically have a microphone built in. Avoid holding your cellphone between your neck and shoulder when you’re on conference calls and make the most out of these headsets.

ROSA was inspired because poor ergonomics is a leading cause of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Created in 2012, ROSA is an online tool that guides users through a self-assessment of their workstations. In addition, it provides immediate recommendations for adjustments to reduce discomfort. Used proactively it contributes to a reduction of lost time at work, an increase in productivity and can help with overall health and wellness.

This is the first time MyAbilities’ ROSA is offered at no cost. There is no commitment and no automatic renewal. To learn more about the ROSA, or any other programs from MyAbilities, visit https://myabilities.com/.

About MyAbilities Technologies Inc.

MyAbilities is a software company that delivers injury prevention and expedited return-to-work solutions through a cloud-based SaaS platform.

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Media contact, resources and information:

Alex Wu
Torchia Communications
(416) 341-9929, ext. 239

Home Office

Working from Home – Office Ergonomics to help mind & body

With the COVID-19 outbreak, many of us are finding ourselves working from home for the first time. I’ve read a lot of great posts about how to get the most of out of your office ergonomics to help prevent pain and discomfort, so I won’t be covering that all here again – instead, I’d like to talk about the things you can do in your home office (or as you might know it, your couch, dining table, kitchen island, or spare bedroom) to get the most out of your workday. 

Physical Ergonomics while working from home 

Lots of great tips are floating around the internet on how you should set up a home office, so I won’t spend much time doing that here. At the end of the day, many of us didn’t have much time to prepare for this big change in our working life – so the chances of running out to the store to grab a spare monitor and keyboard are pretty limited. 

That being said, do what you can to get yourself in a good posture – and if you can’t, moving around your home office can be a big help. Sitting on the couch with your laptop on your lap, and your neck constantly bent down is a recipe for neck pain – but if you mix that in with sitting at the kitchen table, standing at the counter, or other mixed postures – you can introduce the kind of movement that helps keep you comfortable.  

Distancing your Home Office from your living space 

This has its challenges for those of us working in apartments or smaller areas – but try to set up a work area or home office space in your house. When you work all day where you relax all night, it’s tough to get that mental distance between when your brain is “on” and you’re now trying to watch some Netflix. If you can’t do that physically, try to set up your schedule where you get dressed into working clothes for your work day, and change into your more casual attire once you’ve finished your job. 

Give yourself a break 

Take a break
Photo by The Lazy Artist Gallery from Pexels

We have entered a time that none of us have ever been prepared for – the world is changing at a pace we have never seen, and there’s news coming out every 15 minutes that shakes your core. Give yourself a chance to adapt to the new normal and don’t beat yourself up over writing less words per minute, making fewer connections with prospects, or making a mistake in your spreadsheet. You need to give yourself the mental space to adjust and berating yourself (or your co-workers) won’t help. We’re all in this together, and it starts with taking care of yourself! 

Now when it comes to taking a break, a change of scenery can help you mentally and physically. Instead of checking the latest news sites, go for a short walk, take a stretch break, or get some exercise.  Get out of that home office and refresh your mind.

Rely on the tools at your disposal 

Both Android and iOS operating systems have tools for managing your working hours to minimize distractions when your day is done. Using these will help you disconnect and allow you to manage stress levels better.  

None of this is gospel, and much like anyone reading this – we’re all trying to figure things out as we go! Take care of yourself, help those who need help, and we’ll be back to gathering around the water cooler in no time. 

 Learn more about office ergonomics in my earlier article here.

Dr. Michael Sonne, PhD, CCPE
Dr. Michael Sonne, PhD, CCPE

Mike is the creator of the Rapid Office Strain Assessment, or ROSA, which is being taught at numerous universities around the globe.

Psychosocial Screening

Psychosocial Screening – ID the Risk early in Return to Work

Psychosocial screening early in the Return to Work process is critical to understand factors that impact injured workers. These factors play a critical role in the ability of injured or ill workers to recover in a timely way. They also make transitioning back to meaningful work difficult. Clinicians call this the biopsychosocial model of illness.

Biopsychosocial Model of Illness

Psychosocial Screening - Biopsychosocial Model of Illness

The model has been thoroughly researched and the statistics are numerous and compelling. First of all, mental illness in general is highly prevalent. One in five Americans suffer from a mental illness each year and the condition is responsible for 62% of missed work days. Of course the stresses of injury/illness exacerbate any pre-existing mental disorders.

As a result, these issues represent the number one barrier to successful claim outcomes, according to Rising Medical Solution’s 2016 benchmarking study. This study also indicated that psychosocial issues drive up medical costs far more than catastrophic injuries, mostly due to delayed recovery.

A Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine article revealed that workers with emotional distress, such as pain catastrophizing and activity avoidance, were seven times less likely than those in a lower-risk group to return to work within three months.

Consequently the early identification and mitigation of psychosocial risks is a priority in every lost-time claim. MyAbilities has a validated screening tool that is easy to use. This tool is built into MyAbilities’ ClaimX return-to-work platform.

Psychosocial Screening Questionnaire

Psychosocial Screening

We have adapted and automated a simple 13-question “yellow flag” screening tool which can be administered online. The responses instantly produce a quantified risk score indicating whether the claimant is at high, medium or low risk of psychosocial barriers to timely recovery.

The Shirley Ryan AbilityLab (formerly known as the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago), the premier rehabilitation facility in the U.S., has applied the questionnaire successfully. Additionally, Marwan Baliki, PhD., and Rami Jabakhanji, PhD, researchers at the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, validated the questionnaire.

The report makes evidence-based recommendations for optimal psychosocial interventions. They are customized based on the pattern of claimant responses in the screening questionnaire.

Supported by Research

Has research confirmed the value of this type of approach to claim management? Yes, without any doubt.

Researchers have completed numerous studies and analysed outcomes. Therapeutic interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy have consistently demonstrated higher rates and shorter durations for Return to Work. Claim costs have been reduced by up to 50%. There is less utilization of medical treatments such as injections, imaging, physical therapy and surgery. ODG, a MyAbilities partner, recommends these treatment approaches.

Summary – The Importance of Psychosocial Screening

In summary, Myabilities offers a comprehensive, automated and proven methodology for the assessment and management of psychosocial comorbidities in the face of occupational or non-occupational claims. The tool identifies higher risk claims and makes recommendations on treatment. Learn more about how we expedite Return to Work here or click the Talk to an Expert button below.

Dr. Jacob Lazarovic, MD, FAAFP
Dr. Jacob Lazarovic, MD, FAAFP

Jake is the Chief Medical Officer for MyAbilities, and has over 35 years of senior medical administration/managed care experience.

Return to Work

Return to Work Expedited with MyAbilities

How is Return to Work expedited? MyAbilities recognized that the Return to Work (RTW) process for many employers and their claims managers has not fundamentally changed in decades. MyAbilities developed a new process to help expedite RTW over the last 3 years. The goals are to get employees back to work faster and to reduce the administrative burden and remove road blocks for the RTW specialist.

JobX Digital Job Profiles for Return to Work

JobX for Return to Work

At the heart of the process is the JobX Digital Job Profile (DJP). To learn more about its broader uses, refer to my earlier article here. Suffice it to say that clearly and quickly identifying the demands of the job is the fundamental first step in making a determination on the ability of the person to return to work.

In early pilots, using the JobX DJP database of over 50,000 job titles, we have seen a reduction in time required to get an approved Job Profile. The result? The average reduced from 22 business days down to 9. An employer approved one DJP in less than 30 minutes!

Return to work expedited with just one step!

Determine Causation, Occ vs Non-Occ

Causation Report
The Output from a causation report

The next step provides claims managers with an objective tool to determine compensability. A detailed questionnaire based on the specific injury guides the user through a process that assigns a score to occupational and non-occupational factors. The claims handler makes a defensible decision. Is the claim covered by workers compensation or disability insurance?

Psychosocial factors in Return to Work

There are standard guidelines for treatment and recovery times. However, the recovery time has wide variability that cannot be explained by the physical injury alone.

To help understand if there are psychosocial factors that may complicate the recovery process, MyAbilities has a psychosocial questionnaire built in.

Users identify higher risk cases based on their score. The claims manager can then address these cases with the healthcare team to the benefit of both the employee and the employer.

(Read more about psychosocial impacts here)

The power of digital = Job Matching

In the last step, the true value of having JobX Digital Job Profiles shows itself. The system generates a Functional Abilities questionnaire. The form can be quickly filled in online by clinicians and is based on the specific demands of the pre-injury job.

Once the form is completed, job matching can be done to the JobX DJP and any areas of limitation or restriction are flagged. If there are none, the employee is ready to return to work. If there are, can the employer modify the job to address those issues? Or if a database of other jobs has been created, is there another job at the employer that the person can return to?

Job-matching makes identification easy in a quick and easy to view interface. The goal is to get the injured worker back to work as quickly as possible. This could be to their pre-injury job, a modified duty job or another one in the employer’s database.


Leverage 21st century tools to expedite Return to Work. Online, big data and matching algorithms make MyAbilities a unique solution for a difficult process.

This powerful tool revolutionizes management of the return to work process. To learn more, visit myabilities.com/lifecycle or talk to one of our experts to see if this solution can work for you. Finally, for further reading, click here, or to learn more about MyAbilities, visit our website.

Dr. Jacob Lazarovic, MD, FAAFP
Dr. Jacob Lazarovic, MD, FAAFP

Jake is the Chief Medical Officer for MyAbilities, and has over 35 years of senior medical administration/managed care experience.

Improve Office Ergonomics

Office ergonomics can improve (or hurt) well-being

Did you know that over 60% of office workers are feeling discomfort? Or that musculoskeletal disorders (MSD’s) account for a third of workers’ compensation claims? Improving office ergonomics is quickly becoming a necessity.

This inspired the creation of the Rapid Office Strain Assessment, or ROSA. This online tool guides users through an office ergonomic self-assessment. ROSA provides immediate recommendations on adjustments that will reduce their risk of discomfort and eventually injury.

ROSA has been around for a few years and is a science-based process that has been peer-reviewed. For example, there are over 170 citations around the globe of the original paper. The methodology is now being taught at several universities. It has also been translated into several languages.

Development and evaluation of office ergonomic risk

Cited over 170 times, this paper demonstrates ROSA’s efficacy.

Actual Results in the Office

There are also real-world examples of how ROSA has improved office ergonomics with tangible results. In fact, a Top 20 globally ranked university has been using ROSA for their office ergonomics program for a few years.

As a result, 87% of their users were able to make meaningful changes to their workstations. Discomfort levels have steadily dropped, reducing the risk of discomfort or MSD’s by ~20%.

In another example, Hamilton Health Sciences achieved similar results. In a one year time period, they completed 431 assessments and noted a decrease of ~45% in computer workstation MSDs.

As a result, Lisa Gilmour, Manager Health, Safety & Wellness Initiatives said, “The results provided meaningful change and helped improve the wellness of our colleagues.”

The Impact of Office Ergonomics

Each MSD incident can cost thousands of dollars. These are meaningful results that can improve the well-being of your employees and their productivity. So your business saves money and increases productivity.

To learn more about ROSA, click here, or contact MyAbilities here.

Dr. Michael Sonne, PhD, CCPE
Dr. Michael Sonne, PhD, CCPE

Mike is the creator of the Rapid Office Strain Assessment, or ROSA, which is being taught at numerous universities around the globe.

MyAbilities hosts webinar to transform workplace ergonomics and introduce self-administered ROSA – Rapid Office Strain Assessment – to new audiences

MISSISSAUGA, Ont., February 25, 2020 – MyAbilities, innovator in smart health technology and workplace safety, will host a webinar tomorrow, February 26, to help organizations reduce their lost time injuries due to poor office ergonomics.

“On average, the office worker spends two-thirds of each day at their desk,” says Dr. Michael Sonne, vice president of innovations and research at MyAbilities. “For the rest of their day, they’re often working with cellphones, tablets, and other electronic devices. Combine that with hot-desks and mobile offices, proper ergonomics becomes an even bigger challenge for the modern worker than it was a decade ago”.

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are on the rise due in part to the lack of emphasis by employers on proper office ergonomics. Posture, contact stress, and improper seating continue to be contributing factors of MSDs.

“Providing office ergonomics is no easy task,” says Jacob Lazarovic M.D., chief medical officer of MyAbilities. “ROSA teaches employees how to adjust their current office equipment for proper ergonomics in order to minimize injury and MSDs. Simple adjustments to your desk, computer screen or even your posture can provide long-term health benefits for the entire body. ROSA is peer-reviewed and has a firm basis in research, making it a great tool to be the foundation of an office ergonomics program.”

Created in 2012 by Sonne, Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) focuses on risk-assessment for ergonomics and provides guidance on proper setup for the workplace. ROSA can reduce lost time on the job by proactively improving office health for employees through proper office ergonomics.

This will be the second webinar organized by MyAbilities this year. A first one was held, January 15, 2020, to introduce JobXweb.com, the company’ s digital job profile analysis database.

To attend tomorrow’s webinar, please click here.

About MyAbilities Technologies Inc.

MyAbilities is an employee health management technology company that delivers transformative injury prevention and return-to-work solutions through a cloud-based data analytics SaaS platform powered by artificial intelligence.

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Media contact, resources and information:

Alex Wu
Torchia Communications
(416) 341-9929, ext. 239

Webinar Registration click HERE

MyAbilities to attend the 36th Annual WCRI Conference

MISSISSAUGA, Ont., February 19, 2020 – MyAbilities, a global innovator in smart health technology and workplace safety, will attend the 36th Annual Issues and Research Conference, taking place March 5 and 6, 2020, in Boston, Massachusetts. Chief medical officer Jacob Lazarovic M.D. and Derrick Amato, national director of sales, will attend the two-day conference that is organized by the Workers Compensation Research Institute (WCRI). 

“ WCRI is a wonderful think tank that shares our goal of improving workers compensation systems and educating the various players in our industry,” says Dr. Lazarovic. “The annual conference is a great opportunity to engage in dialogue on industry trends, but also to share with attendees ways to use technology to unleash the potential of every company and employee and make the world perform at a higher and safer level.” 

Exactly one month ago, MyAbilities launched JobXweb.com, a free search engine with a database of more than 50,000 job titles, each with unique industry Digital Job Profiles including comprehensive analysis of the psychosocial, cognitive and physical demands.  

“With the arrival of big data, artificial intelligence and other forms of technology and automation, our field is experiencing an important transformation,” says Amato. “Attending conferences such as WCRI is key to our mission of helping people and companies realize enduring prosperity and helps to ensure that MyAbilities contributes to leading the industry through this change.”  

The two-day conference will include keynotes, topic discussions, panelists and networking opportunities. It features more than 100 organizations with attendance from different players in the industry – ranging from risk managers and lawyers to government affair representatives and public officials.  

 About MyAbilities Technologies Inc. 

MyAbilities is an employee health management technology company that delivers transformative employment-related injury prevention and return-to-work solutions through a robust, proprietary, cloud-based data analytics SaaS platform, powered by artificial intelligence. 

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Media contact, resources and information:  

Alex Wu  
Torchia Communications  
(416) 341-9929, ext. 239 

JobX Digital Job Profiles – The Value for Employers

Job profiles, also known as job descriptions or physical demands analyses, are critically important for employers. Unfortunately, many companies do not have accurate and comprehensive job profiles. They may:

  • Not exist at all
  • Be handwritten and/or paper-based
  • Be incomplete and/or outdated
  • Not be digitally actionable.
  • Not contain the full range of occupational demands: physical, cognitive, psychosocial, environmental, etc.

All of this puts the employer at a major disadvantage and even at risk.

The Benefits

Firstly, let’s discuss the benefits. JobX Digital Job Profile (DJP) allows the employer to develop and update an easily retrievable and shareable job profile. MyAbilities has created a database of over 50,000 job titles. Employers use existing profiles as is, or customize them to reflect the particular features of an employer’s jobs.

The detailed demands are used for highly targeted recruitment purposes. Employers clearly define search criteria for candidates. As a result, candidates can understand if they can meet the demands of a job. Post offer of employment testing is easier using the DJP as the benchmark.

Use cases for Digital Job Profiles

The DJP highlights body regions that are at risk of injury for each job. Consequently, this allows employers to implement preventive ergonomic modifications that will reduce injuries and claims. Additionally, you can use the DJP to train new employees to properly and safely perform the job. Also, it enables you to perform periodic monitoring to ensure compliance with safe practices.

User Friendly Format

Digital Job Profile example

The DJP’s graphic display is easy to read. In addition, videos and pictures of each job’s functions and tasks can be uploaded. This creates a visual record that all users of the platform can access. A video (taken by smartphone or tablet at the worksite) provides a better understanding of what a job entails. Moreover, we supplement this using our AI-enabled kinematic analysis. As a result, we create an enhanced DJP that is superior to paper-based profiles.

All of the above features support an employer’s human resource management practices in the absence of any occupational injury or illness. If and when injury occurs, the employer can allow its TPA or insurance carrier to immediately access the worker’s DJP from its customized job bank. This allows the organization to quickly initiate appropriate claim and medical interventions that promote timely Return to Work.

Database sourced from O*NET

The US Department of Labor’s online database, O*NET, is the source used to create the JobX Digital Job Profile Database. Starting with the results of intensive surveys and studies contained in O*NET, JobX Digital Job Profiles turns them into visual and useful tools for understanding the demands of work. Customization of the existing profiles, or confirmation by the employer that they are valid as is, provides an objective and defensible representation of job demands.

Demands Analysis for The Whole Person

Psychosocial Demands Analysis

For the first time, MyAbilities identifies the demands on the whole person. Traditional methods have focused on physical demands. But the nature of work has changed and continues to change, as do the nature of work-related injuries.

Cognitive and maybe more importantly Psychosocial demands become more of a factor. Therefore, understanding what they are is the first step in being able to develop strategies to address them.

JobX Digital Job Profiles include an assessment of the Cognitive and Psychosocial demands. MyAbilities applies a Demand score, identifying those jobs that have greater needs.

In fact, the Psychosocial Demand Score has a strong correlation to stress leave incidence by job title. The higher demand, the higher the percentage of workers go on stress leave. Developing strategies to reduce that demand will have an impact on employee well-being as well as reducing costs.

Reduce Risk

Furthermore, employers need to be aware of the risks of litigation and penalties. Compliance with OSHA, ADA and EEOC is mandatory. A complete job bank with state-of-the-art DJPs ensures compliance with OSHA requirements. DJP’s clearly document the demands of work. DJP’s defend against allegations that workers’ are required to perform duties outside their responsibilities.

Also, DJP’s improve ADA compliance by documenting that an injured worker is able to return to work when objectively capable of performing the essential demands of the job, with or without reasonable accommodations. Alternatively, DJPs help to identify other jobs that the worker may be able to perform after rehabilitation has ended.

In summary, MyAbilities is able to work with employers to quickly and cost-effectively facilitate the development of a proprietary digital job bank that achieves unique and permanent benefits for businesses of all sizes and types of industry.

You can look at the existing database and share Digital Job Profiles for free at JobXweb.com or learn more here. To learn more about the uses of JobX Digital Job Profiles, visit myabilities.com/lifecycle.

Dr. Jacob Lazarovic, MD, FAAFP
Dr. Jacob Lazarovic, MD, FAAFP

Jake is the Chief Medical Officer for MyAbilities, and has over 35 years of senior medical administration/managed care experience.


MyAbilities launches JobXweb.com, the world’s first online Digital Job Analysis search engine, with more than 50,000 job titles

MyAbilities launches JobXweb.com, the world’s first online Digital Job Analysis search engine, with more than 50,000 job titles 

Mississauga, Ont., January 15, 2020 – MyAbilities Technologies, a global innovator in smart health technology and workplace safety, has released the world’s first online Digital Job Analysis database, JobXweb.com. New in January, the free database provides users access to more than 50,000 job titles, each with unique industry Digital Job Profiles including comprehensive analysis of the psychosocial, cognitive and physical demands in addition to a comprehensive job description. 

“Organizations can quickly search through a simple and free database to conduct a thorough review of the demands of thousands of jobs across all industries,” says Dr. Michael Sonne, vice president, innovations and research at MyAbilities Technologies. “We believe JobXweb.com is the first of its kind to offer easy access to a standardized analysis of thousands of jobs, and to present the information in a clear, shareable way.”

Users type in their keyword or job titles and the search engine pulls the job profiles offering the best match with a focus on dynamic visual information, making it easy to understand the job demands regardless of one’s technical knowledge.  

“Reviews of Digital Job Profiles have been outstanding since we first launched it,” says Sonne. “Now, with greater detail, more visuals, continued expansion and a new free version, we’re confident it will help organizations optimize their hiring and workforce management and automate their job demands analyses for the benefit of employees and their businesses.” 

JobXweb.com was developed by MyAbilities, a company committed to preventing and resolving workplace injuries. The company was founded by Reed Hanoun, an accomplished entrepreneur who has developed and created innovative technologies primarily in the health care industry. 

“Thanks to the marriage of technology and the specialized knowledge of our staff, we’re now able to truly help companies understand the demands of their jobs,” says Hanoun. “We are confident JobXweb.com will help them spend less time on data collection and, instead, spend more time on ergonomic interventions to reduce injury risk and empower their claims teams to expedite the return to work of injured workers.” 

Together with a team of experts in employee health management technology, Hanoun and Sonne have set out to transform JobXweb.com into the industry search engine for digital job analysis. 

To learn more about MyAbilities, visit myabilities.com

To try JobXweb.com for free, visit JobXweb.com.

About MyAbilities Technologies Inc.

MyAbilities is an employee health management technology company that delivers transformative employment-related injury prevention and return-to-work solutions through a robust, proprietary, cloud-based data analytics SaaS platform, powered by artificial intelligence.

Media contact, resources and information: 

Portia-Marie Siegel
Torchia Communications 
(416) 341-9929 Ext. 222  

Automated risk assessments from Functional Job Descriptions – using PDAi and the Demand Score to look at risk in your workplace

Written by Mike Sonne, PhD, CCPE

Typically – a physical demands description, or a function job description, has served as a cookbook – a recipe to determine the ingredients required to complete a job, but nothing like a food critique that would tell you if that job was good or bad. If someone needed to do a risk assessment of a job, a separate analysis would occur, and depending on how that assessment was completed, a third analysis might be required to dive deeper into the risks associated with a job. Using the JOBX system featuring PDAi to complete your functional job descriptions can automate this process, allowing you to quickly determine which of your jobs might have the highest risks, then measure the impact of your changes. Here’s an example of how that is accomplished.